Today, the demand for animal source food is increasing rapidly in Indonesia. The increasing production is associated with increasing environmental impacts. Pollution of the environment with Nitrogen and Phosphorus, emissions of greenhouse gases and competition for land are examples of such impacts. This PhD project aims to:

1) investigate the environmental impacts of dairy and aquaculture systems by using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), nutrient balance studies, and land use

2) to investigate possible interventions to improve the environmental performance of the dairy and aquaculture systems by using various methods, such as stakeholder processes and farming system modelling,

3) to explore the effect of interventions outside the production chain of dairy and fish using consequential Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

4) to explore the options to combine dairy and aquaculture production in an integrated system to reduce environmental impacts.