Today, the demand for animal source food is increasing rapidly in Indonesia. The increasing production is associated with increasing environmental impacts. Pollution of the environment with Nitrogen and Phosphorus, emissions of greenhouse gases and competition for land are examples of such impacts. The PhD candidate can either focus on dairy or fish farming, depending on his/her preference. This PhD project aims to:

1) investigate the environmental impacts of dairy or aquaculture systems by using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), nutrient balance studies, and land use

2) to investigate possible interventions to improve the environmental performance of the dairy or aquaculture systems by using various methods, such as stakeholder processes and farming system modelling,

3) to explore the effect of interventions outside the production chain of dairy or fish using consequential Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

4) to explore the options to combine dairy or aquaculture production in an integrated system to reduce environmental impacts.