Farms can be looked at as social-ecological systems, which are, by definition, complex and hard to control. Implementation of SMART farming interventions is not straightforward and often leads to unexpected and undesired (side-)effects. It is expected that land use, which is a constraint for both dairy and fish farming, might have to change in order to make systems more sustainable. The PhD candidate can either focus on dairy or fish farming, depending on his/her preference.

In this PhD research, the current land use and the constraints it holds for expanding production is first explored using literature studies and interviews with farmers. Second, using agent-based models (ABM) potential scenarios for land use change are evaluated. A combination of ABM with Role Play Games (RPG) will be applied on farms. Combining RPG and ABM is used to facilitate a social learning process. The ABM will be parametrized based upon the knowledge from RPG and the knowledge derived from fieldwork. Fourth, scenarios for transition towards more sustainable land use with regards to the controlling factors in combination with animal production will be designed in a participatory setting jointly with stakeholders.